AEON has a wealth of expertise in industrial camera and image sensor characterization, especially with the international standard EMVA 1288 of the European Machine Vision Association (EMVA). Using this expertise, AEON offers the following services:

Measuring services

With its laboratory equipment, AEON offers detailed assessment of camera and image sensor characteristics according to the EMVA 1288 standard and beyond. Suitable for actual needs, customers can choose from several standard measurement packages that cover part or all of the measurements required by the EMVA 1288 standard. If you have other requirements beyond this standard, challenge us! Whatever you have always wanted to know about your camera – we can measure it.

Test equipment

AEON’s camera test devices make accurate measurements according to the EMVA 1288 standard simple and affordable for everyone. If you want to frequently measure cameras or image sensors you either develop and manufacture or just want to evaluate, AEON’s turnkey test systems offer all you need. Our test equipment includes automatic datasheet generation, which would otherwise be cumbersome and time-consuming or would need to be done manually with reduced functionality.


In the context of image processing AEON offers training courses dedicated to cameras and image sensors and their characterization according to EMVA 1288. Usually the training program of AEON is held at AEON’s premises, however the courses can also be offered in-house at the customer’s location. The courses can be given in German or English.


In addition to measuring services and test equipment, AEON also offers consultation for various image processing problems customers may have. If you want to tap into AEON's expertise for your success, please inquire.

International standard EMVA 1288

  •   Linearity, sensitivity, noise
  •   Inhomogeneity (DSNU, PRNU)      
  •   Dark current                  
  •   Spectral sensitivity      
  •   Defect pixel specification             
  •   ... and more

You may know the trouble of comparing different cameras to objectively find out what model is best for your application. Unfortunately, data sheets are often incomparable, and important information is often missing, so that the user is forced to go through the trouble and cost of investigating each camera in its details. The European Machine Vision Association (EMVA) has realized this lack of data conformity. The EMVA has created an industry standard, i.e., EMVA 1288, which gives users objective transparency by providing exact and reliable measurement methods as well as uniform guidelines for presentation of data. This greatly simplifies the comparison of cameras and image sensors.

The EMVA standard is developed by a working group of leading manufacturers of cameras and image sensors, distributors and scientific institutions. The first version of the EMVA 1288 standard was published in August 2005. The latest version can be downloaded free of charge from

Today, the EMVA standard is used around the globe, providing an objective basis for specification of cameras and image acquisition sensors. This has helped making EMVA 1288 the basis for an objective characterization of cameras and sensors. The standard strictly characterizes the devices according to physical parameters. It focuses on the camera without a lens and introduces objective criteria for rating sensitivity, noise, spectral sensitivity, dark current, homogeneity and defective pixels.

If you are interested in the standard, our offers related to EMVA 1288 may help you to better understand and efficiently use the standard: EMVA 1288 trainings


For the measurement of cameras and image sensors according to the EMVA 1288 standard, AEON has put together a selection of four standard measurement packages to choose from as needed. All measurements are carried out without a lens.

Measuring packages

Package 1m: Basic monochrome measurements

This package includes all required measurements according to the EMVA 1288 standard for a monochrome image sensor that can be performed when the camera is at room temperature.

Without illumination:
  • Dark noise
  • Dark signal nonuniformity (DSNU)
  • Dark current
Monochromatic measurements with a calibrated homogeneous LED illumination at a wavelength of 530 nm:
  • Linearity: Digital gray value as a function of the irradiance
  • Noise: Temporal noise as a function of the mean gray value
  • Analysis of photo response nonuniformity (PRNU)
  • Absolute sensitivity (quantum efficiency)
  • Pixel defect characterization

Package 1c: Basic color measurements

The same measurements as in package 1m are conducted but with three illumination colors. Besides green light at 530 nm also blue light at 465 nm and red light at 625 nm is used.

Package 2: Temperature dependency of dark current

This is also part of the EMVA 1288 standard. The dark current is measured at various ambient temperatures within the camera's specified operation conditions.

Package 3: Temperature dependency

In extension of the EMVA 1288 standard all measurements of package 1m or 1c are performed at various ambient temperatures within the camera's specified operation conditions.

Package 4: Spectral sensitivity

The absolute spectral sensitivity (quantum efficiency) is measured from UV (210 nm) to NIR (1000 nm) with a bandwidth (FWHM) of about 6 nm and a step width between measurement points of 2 nm.


Camera mounts

C mount, CS mount, Nikon F
Other mounts on request.

Maximum sensor diagonal

The maximum sensor diagonal for homogeneous illumination is 80 mm.

Camera interfaces

Camera Link, Camera Link HS, CoaXPress, USB3 Vision, GigE Vision
Other interfaces on request.

Derived parameters according to EMVA 1288

  • Absolute gain factor
  • Absolute sensitivity threshold
  • Saturation capacity
  • Maximum signal-to-noise ratio
  • Dynamic range
  • Linearity
  • Quantum efficiency
  • Dark noise
  • Spatial non-uniformity of the dark signal (dark signal non-uniformity, DSNU) and the sensor sensitivity (photoresponse non-uniformity, PRNU)

Result documentation

All measurement results including graphs, tables and images are summarized in a measuring report in PDF format. This report constitutes a data sheet specified by EMVA 1288. In addition, all data are provided as machine-readable CSV files and all diagrams and images of the report are delivered as individual files.

Beyond the current EMVA 1288 standard

Our equipment enables us to also conduct measurements that are not treated by the actual EMVA 1288 standard.

  • Monochromatic measurements at other wavelengths and with white light
  • Measurements of non-linear and HDR cameras
  • Measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of imaging sensors and lenses
  • ... and much more

Measuring service - Please contact us:


Test equipment AEON Camera Calibrator (ACC)


AEON Camera Calibrator ACC4

EMVA 1288 measurements made

  • simpler
  • faster
  • more flexible
  • more affordable

with the compact ACC4
for C and S mount cameras.

Accurate measurements according to EMVA 1288 - easy and affordable

AEON offers customizable test equipment in two sizes, one for standard sensors and the other for sensors with diagonals up to 80 mm. Both are modular and complete turn-key systems with customizable LED light sources and all required evaluation software based on AEON's powerful heurisko® image processing software running on Microsoft Windows. A heurisko® Developer license is included.

The whole set of measurements is conducted automatically after measurement configuration. Following completion of measurements, a datasheet can be generated automatically. Batch processing and integration into other software environments are possible.

Key features

Model ACC2 ACC4
Largest sensor diameter 80 mm 18 mm (1.1“ sensor)
Standard camera adaptors S, CS, C, Nikon F
Others on request
S, CS, C
Light source Pulsed or current controlled LEDs
4 or 8 colors, two intensity levels or 14 colors, one intensity level
Ø 84 mm,
Pulsed or current controlled LEDs
4 colors, one intensity level
Ø 21 mm
Not exchangeable
  Special design on request
(e.g. HDR module: one color with three intensity levels).
Special design on request.
Wavelengths Standard
4 colors: 470, 530, 625, 850 nm
8 colors: 365, 405, 470, 530, 625, 725, 850, 940 nm
14 colors, example: 405, 415, 425, 460, 480, 500, 530, 590, 610, 625, 660, 690, 725, 750 nm

Other wavelength combinations on request
(range 365 - 1550 nm).
VIS-NIR: 470, 520, 630, 850 nm
SWIR: 1050, 1200, 1300, 1550 nm

Other wavelength combinations on request
(range 405 - 1550 nm).
Calibration Split optical path with built-in calibrated photo diode. Split optical path with built-in calibrated photo diode.
For increased dynamic range measurements M82 thread for neutral filter Tray for easy insertion of neutral or polarization filters
Overall dimensions (L x W x H) 900 x 130 x 140 mm 297 x 79 x 70 mm
Control interface USB 2.0 USB 2.0
External power supply 24 VDC None (5 VDC, 450 mA via USB)


The ACC systems conduct all measurements required by the newest release of the EMVA 1288 standard.

The systems do not measure temperature dependency of the dark current and spectral dependency of the quantum efficiency. These measurements are optional because they require special equipment that would increase the effort considerably.

Linearity, noise, and sensitivity

According to the standard, these measurements are usually performed with monochromatic green light for monochrome cameras and with blue, red, and green light for color cameras at 50 irradiances at least and at darkness. If the camera features at other wavelengths are of interest, an ACC can also be equipped with these colors.

Spatial non-uniformities

With only a few illumination steps, mean and variance of each individual pixel are computed by averaging at least 100 images. With these data it is possible to analyze the spatial non-uniformities of the dark image and of the sensitivity of the sensor.

Dark current

The dark current is determined by taking many images at different exposure times without any illumination.

Derived quantities and data sheet

From these measurements, the following parameters are derived:

  • Absolute gain factor
  • Absolute sensitivity threshold and saturation capacity
  • Maximal signal-to-noise ratio
  • Dark noise
  • Dynamic range
  • Non-linearity
  • Spatial inhomogeneity of the dark image (dark signal non-uniformity, DSNU) and of the sensitivity (photo­response non-uniformity, PRNU)
  • Quantum efficiency at the wavelengths of the ACC light source

Measurement results are provided as diagrams in PDF format and as tables in CSV format. Images of the DSNU and PRNU are provided in PNG format. All essential intermediate results are stored for repeated evaluation. Data can be used to automatically generate a data sheet complying with the standard.


The ACC is a modular optical system, which is described in more detail in the following. Please refer also to the table above.

The optical system consists of a tube system with interchangeable optical components including a homogeneous light source and a standard camera mount such as Nikon F mount, C mount or M72. (From the camera's point of view, the ACC mount looks like a lens mount.) The length of the tube is determined by the diameter of the light source, as determined by the standard. The system is light-proof; no need for dim-out of light.

All light sources are current-controlled LEDs. Current is controlled digitally with 12-bit resolution. The irradiation of the image sensor can be varied either by changing the LED current at constant exposure time or by changing the exposure time of the camera at constant LED current or by using the pulse mode of the light source. The first two methods make measurements simple because it is not necessary to trigger the camera or the light source. The camera just needs to be connected to the computer for grabbing images.

The whole system is controlled by a computer via a single USB connection.

Camera interfaces

  • GigE Vision and USB3 Vision
  • All cameras of Imaging Development Systems (IDS) via IDS’ uEye
  • All cameras of Basler via Basler’s pylon
  • Camera Link, Camera Link HS, CoXPress
  • and GigE Vision via Silicon Software’s frame grabbers
  • Camera Link via Teledyne Dalsa’s Sapera LT
  • CoaXPress via Euresys’ Coaxlink
  • Cameras of PCO

Support of further interfaces and SDKs can easily be added in the form of a DLL by use of heurisko’s generic interface for data acquisition. Some interfaces may be easily supported by adding just a few code lines in a heurisko script. Please contact us for discussion of your requirements.

Customization to meet specific requirements are possible. For example, an ACC4 was modified in order to mount it to a climate chamber. The electronics is located outside the chamber in an environment with normal ambient temperature while the camera is located inside the chamber (see picture).

Measuring systems - Please contact us: